In SpaceDestiny you have three basic technologies which reinforce the attack, shield and armour of your spaceships and defenses.
Each level gives you 10% of the basic level of your spaceship/defense.
Specific technologies are related to spaceships or defenses they've unlocked.
As you probably guesses, the specific technologies are laser, ion, plasma and graviton :
Laser : increases attack by 2.5 per level on the base unity (weapon).
Ions : increases shield by 2.5% per level on the base unity (shield).
Plasma : increases attack by 5% and shield by 2.5% per level on the base unity (weapon and shield)
Graviton : increases attack by 5% and shield by 5% per level on the base unity (weapon and shield)